Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Java’s utilization of Multiple CPU Cores for Parallelism or Concurrency


While verifying the utilization of multiple CPU Cores in Java for Parallel or Concurrent or Multi Threading programming, I came across interesting numbers. I wrote a simple program which tries to compute 40,000,000 random integer numbers first using a single thread and then again using maximum threads, one per available CPU Cores.

In order to find available CPU Cores on a system, Java exposes a method in java.lang.Runtime:

public int availableProcessors()

Returns the number of processors available to the Java virtual machine.

This value may change during a particular invocation of the virtual machine. Applications that are sensitive to the number of available processors should therefore occasionally poll this property and adjust their resource usage appropriately.

the maximum number of processors available to the virtual machine; never smaller than one

When I run the program to print out the number of available CPU Cores, I was surprised that it printed “4” instead of “2” because I have a Duo Core Laptop:

duo core

To further verify that, I open up the Task Manager and found this:

task manager

It turns out that it’s “4” because of Hyper-Threading:

“For each processor core that is physically present, the operating system addresses two virtual or logical cores, and shares the workload between them when possible.”

So, finally I ran my single threaded program and observe this:

why all processors were busy for a single thread

Why all the four logical processors were busy in running a single threaded program? shouldn’t that be just one of them?

To dig deeper, I changed my program to run in 4 parallel threads and the result was:

multi threading execution on 4 logical processors

That wasn’t making any sense, clearly both single threaded and multi threaded versions of the program were using all the available logical processors for processing. Searching the internet for clarification reveals that:

“The OS is responsible for scheduling. It is free to stop a thread and start it again on another CPU. It will do this even if there is nothing else the machine is doing.

The process is moved around the CPUs because the OS doesn't assume there is any reason to continue running the thread on the same CPU each time.”

And there comes the concept of CPU or Processor Affinity:

The processor affinity is simply a number that every process is associated with. It serves as a bit array that determines on which CPUs in a system the threads of a particular process are allowed to run. For instance a processor affinity of 2 means that the process can only run on CPU 1, because only the bit at index 1 is set (if the processor affinity is regarded as a bit array with indexing starting at the rightmost bit with zero). A processor affinity of 1 means, that the process, or better yet, the threads of that process, can only run on CPU 0. A processor affinity of 3 means that the process may run on both CPUs 0 and 1. A processor affinity of 0 means that there is no CPU that this process may run on, and is therefore not possible. The processor affinity is normally inherited from the parent process that starts a particular process, but it can also be changed at runtime from another process.

While there are several ways to test the Processor Affinity, the one that I found easy and quick to use was ProcAff. After running the same single threaded version of the program with procaffx64.exe:

procaffx64 command

I observe this:

single thread with processor affinity

That’s how the execution of a single threaded program should look like; utilizes only one logical processor for its execution.

Furthermore it is also quite interesting that the execution time of the following matches (please refer to the Microsoft Excel Sheet “analysis.xlsx” uploaded on GitHub repository along with the code):

Average Time to run a single Thread with no CPU/Process Affinity == Average Time to run a single Thread with CPU/Process Affinity

However, the Task Manager shows visually that former case uses all 4 logical processors while the later case uses only one logical process, but they both end up finishing up their task at almost exactly the same time.

Monday, March 28, 2016

Back to Academics - Master of Science (Big Data) program @ DHA Suffa University

Yay! its good to be back to blogging Smile. Its the Facebook, that was keeping me away from maintaining this blog, because I was literally dumping every thing on Facebook. But, when I thought about sharing my learning experience with my readers, I realize I need to go back to actual blogging and here I am!

One question, that I was asked quite recently and most frequently, by people around me, was “Why enrolling in Masters now? and why DHA Suffa University?”. My answer is more or less the same as “The Statement of Purpose”, which I wrote hastily in few minutes, just before submitting my application for the MS program.

Statement of Purpose

After spending some years in the industry and gaining some post-bachelor’s experience (I graduated in 2001), I started surveying available post-grad programs locally to shortlist those which appeals me. To my bad luck, I end up with an empty list. Why? because I felt those programs, back then (I guess 2008) were too theoretical and lack emphasis on the actual “Application” of those theories. I’m a firm believer of the fact that Humans are as good as Doers as they are Thinkers. And, we always “act” upon the “knowledge” we gain through different experiences in our life.

It was indeed very unfortunate that I did similar surveys, at least three more times from 2008 to 2016 and I always ended up with the same results. None of the post-grads programs were “Practical” enough that would attract me to just roll up my sleeves and join the program.

I’ve been discussing my experiences with a number of people in my circles and I’ve been persuading people, both in industry and academia, to come up with a program that infuses the theoretical knowledge with the practical implementation in a way that would lead us to achieve breakthroughs in all walks of life and specially in science and technology.

Then, I heard about this new Masters Program that DSU is launching and I was like, “I’ve got to enroll in it no matter what!”. Although I’m working full time and I’m kind of running short of time but still, when I hear the vision I was flabbergasted. This is the kind of program that I waited for soooo long!

So, first, thank you to DSU, for being so daring and bold enough to take the initiative in launching a program that is indeed the most pressing need of the time. Secondly, please give me a chance to be part of this game-changing program. I, on my end, will ensure that I’ll add significant value to the program in whatever capacity I can.


Syed Muhammad Humayun

But what’s so “Practical” about this program in particular?

The vision of this program is to work with the people in industry and academia and to form a group who not only research new problems, ideas and techniques but also devise new solutions and newer implementations in the form of complete Working Models, Validated Prototypes, Sophisticated End Products, Re-usable APIs, Components and Platforms. And, through that, they will be able to deliver the “real value” and actually serve the needs of the society (including the industry and the academia).

Besides that, the enrollment in this MS program is open to industry people who have significant experience and skills in related fields. These MS students, along with active PHD students will form a “research group” which will then “Work as a Team in a Lab” to achieve their end goals (mentioned in the para above).

While, a lot of institutions are working with similar concepts world over, in Pakistan, we are fortunate to have one of our own and I wish that we will have similar programs real soon in other universities of Pakistan as well.

MS/PHD Computer Science Programs @ DHA Suffa University